Thomas Jefferson’s Education by Alan Taylor; Norton, 426 pp., $29.95
Revolutionary Brothers: Thomas Jefferson, the Marquis de Lafayette, and the Friendship That Helped Forge Two Nations by Tom Chaffin; St. Martin’s Press, 529 pp., $29.99
Alan Taylor revels in having a broad canvas to fill, so readers who pick up Thomas Jefferson’s Education expecting a concise treatment of that narrow topic will instead find themselves swept along on a panoramic journey through Virginia history from the 1730s to the 1860s. Jefferson’s alma mater, the College of William & Mary, shares the spotlight with the institution he founded, the University of Virginia, where Taylor is the Thomas Jefferson Foundation Professor of History. But Taylor’s learned, sprightly text illuminates the larger milieu that educated Jefferson—Virginia’s rabidly partisan politics; its struggles over the role of religion in public life; its conviction that it is the finest place on earth; its prickly, explosive sense of honor; and a pervasive inequality perpetuated by slavery, by the planters’ firm grip on the levers of power, and by the refusal to extend education to all.
Eleven of Virginia’s first 17 governors attended William & Mary, but the college declined after the Revolution and earned a reputation for tumult. Amid horrific rioting, dueling, and dissipation, the students doggedly clung to their honor code—a code of silence—even when one of their “pranks” involved digging up a woman’s corpse for display. When these students refused to give evidence against each other, their parents and political leaders backed them up. Former governor William Cabell declared that informing on fellow students was a breach of a gentleman’s honor, and no honorable man would attend a school that compelled such testimony. Scholarship lagged. Between 1800 and 1805, only three students received degrees. When one is destined to take command of a plantation, literature and philosophy hold little appeal. Looking back on his years at William & Mary, Jefferson recalled how education saved him from a society of horse racers, card players, and fox hunters, a “worthless” bunch. Taylor reinforces this notion, finding that wherever southern young men attended college, they raised hell: “The most troubled northern university was Princeton, which had the largest proportion of southern students, usually a third.” One father of a student wrote that dissipation “pervades all the States where Slavery abounds,” and a Virginian attending Princeton wrote, “there is something wonderfully inflammable in the nature of young men. … A feeling of resentment or indignation communicates itself like electricity, and what I most wonder at, is that we have not more riots.”
Thomas Cooper, president of South Carolina College, told Jefferson that the indulgence of southern parents “renders young men less fit for college government than the habits of the northern people; and the rigid discipline of the northern seminary must be put in force inexorably in the south.” But one of Jefferson’s primary reasons for establishing a new university in Virginia was to protect young southern men from potentially dangerous northern ideas. He denounced the colleges of the Northeast as nests of fanaticism, hypocrisy, selfish morals, and crooked politics. Jefferson’s nephew, Peter Carr, echoed his uncle’s sentiments when he referred to the northern states as “foreign countries” and said that their colleges fill “young, open, and unsuspecting minds” of southern students with opinions and sentiments “inimical to the interest and happiness of their parent country.” When his grandson Francis Eppes was considering colleges, Jefferson suggested South Carolina despite Thomas Cooper’s warning. Eppes was suspended for riotous behavior.
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